What are the state?
State referred to the organization of political power, which contributes to the implementation of certain public interest within a specific territory.Or the state - it is a certain set of political institutions that see their main goal in preserving the integrity of society.
If you are wondering what has the state, and what functions they perform, then this is the answer.The state owns some specific techniques that help preserve and maintain the integrity of the state's sovereignty, traditions within society, the rule of law, as well as by the State set a specific order of the relationship between citizens.In addition, the state is trying to involve in its activities practically the entire population, both on its territory and in other territories, of course, all in accordance with international agreements of the State.
All relationships between the members of society, as well as the application of power is regulated by the Constitution, laws and other legal documents that are part of government, and, of course, the traditions that have formed inside it in historical reality.Next, consider the concept of the state, what types there are and what shape it has.
Russia At the moment there are 195 states that the recognition of the majority of other states.A state 193 of them are even included in the United Nations.In more detail, we can consider such a state as the Russian Federation.Answering the question of what kind of state Russia, we can say that it is a state with a republican form of government.The main body of laws is considered the Russian Constitution, which was adopted on December 12, 1993 at the national referendum.The official language is absolutely on the whole territory of Russia is considered to be Russian.The head of state is considered a president who is elected by the citizens of the Russian Federation for six years (until 2012 for 4 years) by secret ballot.The representative and legislative body of the Russian Federal Assembly is composed of two chambers - is the Federation Council and State Duma.Russian executive power in the hands of the Russian government, which is headed by the chairman, appointed by the president, of course, agreeing with this candidature by the State Duma.The composition of the Russian Federation consists of 85 subjects, which in turn are made up of 21 republics, 8 edges, 47 areas, two federal destination city - a St. Petersburg and Moscow, as well as an autonomous region and autonomous districts 6.And the whole territory of the Russian Federation is divided into 7 federal districts.
What forms of government are
consider everything about the state, which exist.Their shapes and types.Under the forms of state and of government is understood method of organization in the state of supreme power.State's form of government are divided on the monarchy and republic.
The monarchy ruled by only one person who has obtained his position by right of succession, regardless of the choice of the voters.Monarchy in turn, as the classification of states by form of government have constitutional division and absolute.Absolute monarchy means unlimited power of the state.
These countries are Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Oman.Constitutional monarchy as head of state assumes authority, which is limited by law.But a constitutional monarchy divided into dualistic and parliamentary.When Dual Monarchy entire executive power is vested in the President.These states include Kuwait, Jordan and Morocco.In a parliamentary monarchy, the head of state are limited representation functions.In this case, the head of the supreme power structure is considered the prime minister.
source of power in the country - a national society and the higher authorities, formed the law.But the republic is also divided into three types: parliamentary, presidential and semi-presidential.The difference of these species in a ratio of powers of the legislative, executive powers and authority of heads of state.A parliamentary republic is characterized by the fact that the parties formed, bears political responsibility before the Parliament, the president there is a head of state and is elected by parliament, but has the right and judge it.The parliament, in turn, forms the government, and may render him a vote of no confidence.The essence of this republic that power, both the executive and legislature in the hands of Parliament.The essence of a presidential republic is the relation or interaction between the legislative and executive branches of government, or the parliament with the president.Under a semi-presidential republic should be understood republic where mixed features of parliamentary and presidential republics.
Next, consider the concept and types of states by form of government.Under the form of government is understood as a territorial entity of the government, as well as the interaction of the state as a whole or its constituent parts.three forms of government can be distinguished - the unitary, federal state and a confederation.And now briefly about each.
- Under the unitary state is understood as an integral state, which centralized its administrative-territorial units do not have the status of public entities and have no sovereign rights.In a unitary state may all be one, and the higher authorities, and nationality, and the constitution that organizes a high degree of influence of the central government throughout the country.For unitary states include France, Sweden, Norway, Great Britain, Belgium and others.
- Under federal state refers to a complicated federal state in which it is a part of the individual states or state entities that have the sovereignty.And all of these individual States can have its own constitution, citizenship, their highest state authorities.By the federal states of the USA can be attributed, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Germany and others.
- Under Confederation meant a union of sovereign states, which is formed to achieve specific goals.The Confederation of Union bodies only coordinate the activities of states and only on issues for which they are united.This means that the sovereignty of the confederation does not have.Confederation include the European Community (EC).
There is a division of States in the form of political regime.democratic and non-democratic - are two types of state regime can be identified.In a democratic regime there is real community participation in the organization of state power.When a non-democratic regime there is no real public participation in the organization of the government, it is concentrated in the hands of only one person or a collegial body.That's what the modern state and its types exist.