What are the dictionaries ?

What are the dictionaries ?

Currently, there are slightly more than two dozen of dictionaries, in which words and phrases of a language (or languages) are divided into specific types.So, consider what has dictionaries.

Explanatory dictionaries

These linguistic dictionaries explains meanings of various words and idiomatic expressions (phraseological units) of a language by means of the same language.Dictionaries can be more or less complete and designed for a particular readership.The most complete and accurate dictionaries called academic.

Grammatical dictionaries

fairly large group of dictionaries, the purpose of which is to cover individual or several groups of the vocabulary of a language, united by any grammatical grounds.For example, there are verbs dictionaries, adjectives, indeclinable words.

Derivational and morphemic dictionaries

dictionary morphemes - roots, suffixes, prefixes, and other parts of speech, word formation for the employees in a particular language.

dictionary compatibility

This group of dictionaries is less common, and its aim is the right choice of words to express their thoughts more stylistically correctly.Given the current level of oral and written language in particular, such a good idea to publish dictionaries in large editions.

Thesauri and thesaurus

In these vocabulary words are divided into groups of similar meaning, which facilitates the compilation of texts on any particular topic.

Inverse dictionaries

They greatly simplify many linguistic research, since words are arranged alphabetically, but in reverse order, ie, from right to left.Thus, it is very easy to quickly select all or verbs, such as adjectives.I have a dictionary (authored A.A.Zaliznyaka) greatly facilitated the preparation of the practical part of the thesis.

spelling and pronouncing dictionaries

They are a list of words of a language and their correct spelling (spelling) and the setting of stress (pronouncing) and indicating the options if necessary.

Lexical dictionaries

dictionary lexicon of certain groups, selected according to different principles.Here we assign dictionaries antonyms, synonyms, homonyms and paronyms.In dictionaries of synonyms you will find the words, different in spelling and sound, but similar in meaning ( "beautiful" - "beautiful").Dictionary of homonyms, on the contrary, contain the words are identical in spelling and sound but different in meaning ( "bow" as a plant and "onion" as a weapon).But in dictionaries paronyms you will learn root words, similar in sound and spelling but different in meaning, which is often confused (for example, "dress" and "wear").Opposites same - it is the word opposite in meaning ( "good" - "evil").

dictionary of neologisms

In these dictionaries is a list of words that have recently entered into a particular language.

Bilingual translation dictionaries or

dictionary, which made the translation of words from one language to another.These dictionaries are usually bilingual, but there are instances, and with a large number of languages ​​(eg, French-Russian-German).

anthroponymic dictionaries

group of dictionaries that contain a list of proper names of people (first name, last name), as well as nicknames and aliases in a particular language.

dictionary inhabitants names

We are talking about how to refer to the inhabitants of a town, area or region.

lingvostranovedcheskogo and cultural dictionaries

They contain detailed information about the culture and daily life of the people who speak the target language.

dictionary of linguistic terms

In these dictionaries, explains the meaning of terms from different fields of linguistics and phonetics graphics to syntax and style.

acronyms dictionary

Here you will find all kinds of decoding acronyms and abbreviations commonly used in a particular language.


These publications are a more or less complete lists of terms (with the interpretations) in a particular branch of science or industry.

Of course, this list is far from complete, as there are more narrowly focused, and dictionaries (eg, dictionaries, adjectives and comparisons dictionaries or language difficulties), but these dictionaries are rare and have to use them, basically, only to a narrow circle of specialists.


Unlike linguistic dictionaries, which we have discussed before, encyclopedic dictionaries are dictionaries, intended to study the realities of a particular area of ​​expertise or profession.In addition, there are encyclopedic dictionaries as a universal (eg, children's encyclopedia or "Great Soviet Encyclopedia"), as well as industry.As examples of the latter to give a philosophical encyclopedia, and an astronomical encyclopedia.Well, I think we fully sufficient answer to the question of what dictionaries exist.