How to make milk?
Nature gives us invaluable useful and appropriate product - milk.But how do the milk, and that is a process, you now have to find out.Milk fat is composed of proteins, carbohydrates and mineral salts.The milk contain almost all essential vitamins and minerals.But one major drawback in that the product is - milk is perishable.This is easily explained by the fact that the microorganisms, getting into the milk, for their excellent breeding ground, begin to multiply rapidly.To prevent this or milk lends itself to special treatment.
Usually at home, boil the milk.But at the same time, all the useful components of milk yield irreversible changes.Typically, dairies, acts otherwise.The milk is heated to 70-90 degrees short time and maintained at a given temperature.As a result, harmful bacteria are killed and valuable milk components remain unchanged.This method of treatment for the first time, offered the French scientist Louis Pasteur, after which the method was called pasteurization.Well, now, about each stage of manufacture of milk in more detail.We tell you how to make milk at work.
Each batch of milk that enters the plant, is strictly controlled.Reception and evaluation of the quality of the milk is usually started with a tour of the container in which it was brought.Next, the organoleptic inspection of milk, ie milk samples on the smell, color, consistency and taste.Soon small part of the milk is taken for the purpose of its analysis in the laboratory to determine its composition and the bacterial medium disposed in the milk.When the analysis is ready and given a positive result on samples, the milk passes sorting.
Cleaning To clean the milk from mechanical impurities, special filters are used, which have a different design.Also, use different kinds of filter media - filters made of cotton, gauze or cloth livsana.
most advanced and high-quality method of cleaning milk separator is considered to be a way.That is, in simple terms, the milk is placed in a special drum - a centrifuge that rotates at a certain speed.During rotation, the foreign particles which have a greater density than that of milk plasma particles are deposited on the walls of the centrifuge.During such operation, the smallest particles are removed contaminants including even bacterial origin.After the purification step the milk is cooled rapidly to a low temperature, in order to prevent the growth of microflora.
process of separating milk used for the separation of the milk into cream - Fatty foods and low-fat milk.There is a process using a special separator - cream separators.
This normalization process as is used for the settlement of the chemical composition of the milk back to normal, that is, to the position of standards and specifications values.Taken into account the proportion of fat in the milk solids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.Most of all, normalization is performed by mass, the percentage of fat in the milk.
Homogenization Homogenization is carried out for cream and milk mixture.This process of splitting the fat globules, when subjected to a significant external force product, i.e. product forms and give homogeneous consistency.
If you've heard the word of pasteurization and understand what it means, how do the milk, you will not be difficult to understand, since the two processes are directly interconnected.But more to the point.Usually, pasteurization is carried out at temperatures lower than the boiling point.It is 65-90 degrees Celsius.The purpose of pasteurization in the following:
- destroy pathogens, and have a safe for the consumer with respect to sanitation and hygiene product.
- reduce the level of bacterial contamination of milk, enzymes break down the crude product, which may cause deterioration of pasteurized milk, reducing its durability and shelf life.
- Change of physical and chemical properties of milk, for the specified standards of the finished product.This usually organoleptic qualities - Product viscosity and density.
Industrial pasteurization is a process of processing the milk at a temperature of 75-77 degrees, with an exposure of about 20 seconds, which can fully meet the hygienic safety and the destruction of harmful bacteria, besides preserving food and biological value of milk.
To know how to make milk, you need to know about the sterilization process, which is used for the manufacture of hygienic, sanitary and safe product, and for the duration of its storage without changing any properties.
Among the most cost-effective and reliable means of sterilization, when milk production using the thermal method.The method is in the treatment of milk at high temperatures, above one hundred degrees delayed in order to eliminate any existing in milk and bacteria spores.Also, for enzyme deactivation, with minimal loss of gustatory qualities in the finished product.Thus, the finished product can be stored for about a year, but only if the container seal.The most used method is considered a thermal treatment of milk flow temperature 135-155 degrees, from a few seconds delay, with its subsequent packing in aseptic conditions in a sterile packaging.
Sterilized milk though and kept longer than pasteurized, but taste is inferior to him.How to make milk in our factories, you know, basically, it's exactly the same process at all mills, using the same technology and processing.