As mined diamonds ?
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Diamond is considered to be the most solid of all the natural mineral known, which is the molecular form of carbon.Among the precious stones the diamond firmly holds one of the most important places, and cut diamonds, or diamonds are considered the most important jewelry.As mined diamonds?
Nature and diamond deposits
By their nature, the diamond is a solid dielectric, which has high wear resistance and elasticity, as well as the ability to luminescence.The overwhelming majority of diamonds have a yellow or brown color, but also in nature there are pink, green, blue and even red diamonds (in the world there are about 10 such diamonds).Diamonds are used in the manufacture of drill bits and cutting tools, in the nuclear industry, as well as for the production of microelectronics and computers hours.
Before you understand how to get a diamond, you need to know the nature of the formation of these gems.Modern scientists hold the mantle of the theory of the origin of diamonds, according to which the carbon atoms are formed in a diamond crystal lattice at high pressure under the ground at a depth of more than 200 km.Subsequently, these diamond rocks ejected volcanic magma to the surface in the so-called "tube explosion."In addition, these gems are found in alluvial deposits of river, so the mining of diamond deposits are considered to be a secondary type of diamond deposits.
Initially diamonds were mined for centuries because of placers in India in the legendary Golconda mines, but the Indian diamond deposits were depleted to the XVIII century.Since 1725 the country has become a major diamond mining Brazil, which supplied high-quality diamond crystals from an extensive network of river placers.But after 150 years of diamond mining has changed dramatically due to the fact that in 1867 the first "explosion tube" was found in South Africa in the town of Kimberley.That is why in future diamond deposits became known kimberlite pipes, and the modern diamond industry is entirely based on the extraction of diamonds from kimberlite and lamproite pipes.
Now the world has about 35 diamond producing countries, among which are considered leading Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa.Angola and Namibia.In Russia, considered the richest diamond deposits in Yakutia, Arkhangelsk and Perm.
diamonds Diamond mining is considered very costly and complex process that requires large initial investments.In order to understand how diamonds are mined, it is necessary to consider all stages of the organization of diamond production from start to finish:
- reconnaissance stage.Not one year, and sometimes a decade spent on it, to find the first diamond mine and produce his first instance confirming the deposit of the precious stone is in the area.
- Infrastructure stage.After confirmation of diamond reserves, prepared platform on which to develop the stone will take place, purchased equipment and all the necessary equipment, infrastructure creates a living for the people who will be engaged in the extraction and processing of stone.Thus, for the preparation of the site using the following methods:
- if kimberlite pipe lies on the ocean floor, the subsequent production of diamonds will be performed by means of special robots, equipped with electronic control that the extraction of the rock immediately find the gems and pack them in closed containers;
- if kimberlite pipe is located deep under the ground, the diamond development is using the abandoned underground mines is considered extremely dangerous and complex diamond production, which still requires large investments.
- Factory stage.As soon as all the necessary infrastructure, begins the construction of the processing plant, where the diamonds are extracted from the rock is created.In addition, management is engaged in the selection of personnel, which will serve all stages of the diamond process.
- Mining stage.This stage is considered to be both final and beginners, because on it runs the entire production, from production to processing diamonds.As mined diamonds at this stage?According to the common technology of extraction and processing of diamonds, the whole process consists of the following stages:
- primary ore grinding to levels of 50-150 mm, screening and sorting of diamond kimberlite ore and associated minerals (this step is performed at the mine with the help of special mobile units);
- secondary grinding the ore to the volume of 1-32 mm, screening, sorting ore at the 4 categories of pure diamond kimberlite (1-4 mm, 4-8 mm, 8-16 mm and 16-32 mm) and separating it from the related species (this step is performed in the factory);
- sent to the sorting plant, where with the help of special technology comes the final examination and selection of diamonds in diameter, and weight class.
- As a rule, after the completion of the sorting process, learned through a variety of technologies, the diamonds are traded.
Technologies diamond mining
- How to get the diamond?Among modern technology separating and sorting diamonds are especially popular following:
- Using fat plants.Fat installation are considered quite primitive as for sorting diamonds used tables, covered with a layer of fat, which allowed the diamond kimberlite mixed with water.As a result of the rock is carried away together with water, and the diamonds adhered to the surface of the fat is collected manually.
- use of X-ray machines.X-ray machines are considered more advanced, since the irradiation of ores diamonds glow blue light that activates the pneumatic plunger, automatically intercepting gems.
- Using electromagnetic installations.Since virtually no diamond magnet is attracted, and the rock in which it is found, on the contrary, has a considerable degree of magnetic radiation, then using electromagnetic installations gems are easily separated from the mining of ore.
- use of suspension settings.This method is used for the extraction of precious stones from the alluvial diamond fields by placing a diamond-breed with a high density liquid (ferrositsily).Thus heavy stones go to the bottom and remain in the lungs, and subsequently undergo surface enrichment stage.
- Use plants with a foam skimmer.This method is used in the production of diamond dust, when the mountain breed of diamond processed in workshops with millstones.Since Kimberlite has a lower hardness, the resulting diamond dust is removed by setting a foam skimmer.