What are mushrooms ?
Mysterious view of living organisms, which today is not fully understood - mushrooms.Those who live on this planet for more than a billion years, they account for about one million species, of which a person was able to investigate, classify and describe only 5% - 70 000 species.One of the earliest inhabitants of the planet Earth has amazing healing properties.Few know that the medicine that has saved millions of lives, an antibiotic which is a product of his life.The most interesting fact is that the villagers under Opochka (Pskov region) never suffered from oncological diseases.It saves them mushroom Veselka, which polysaccharides produce perforin, which is able to make holes in the membrane of cancer cells.And, just last die.
Sverhtsarstvo eukaryotes combines plant kingdom, animal kingdom ... and the kingdom of fungi.Yes, because of their special properties, mushrooms are fungi kingdom.They can not call the animals, but also plants - too.
With plants mushrooms have a common characteristic:
- presence of the cell wall;
- ability to synthesize vitamins;
- immobility in vegetative state;
- proliferation of disputes;
- food intake by adsorption (absorption).
But there are traits common to animals:
- lack chloroplasts and photosynthetic pigments;
- accumulation of glycogen as a reserve substance;
- presence of chitin cell wall, which is typical for the skeleton of arthropods;
- formation and release of urea.
mushrooms Mushrooms are divided into higher fungi, lower fungi and gribopodobnye organisms.For higher fungi are classes: Ascomycetes, Zygomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes.They are called by these fungi.They are completely lost flagellate stage specific polysaccharide - Chitosan - part of the cell membranes.Also included in the cells of glucose polymers and chitin.
To lower fungi are classes: Chytridiomycota, oomycetes and others.Reproduction of these fungi is done by zoospores.By gribopodobnym organisms are actinomycetes, many of which produce antibiotics.
the fungi are parasites
- False tinder.
- Root sponge
- Armillaria mellea and others.
Parasites tree species are especially dangerous.For example, the mycelium can spread openka under the bark, implanted into the wood, and passing over the roots from one barrel to another.Thus, they can hit a large part of the forest.The most common estimates of location affects forests weakened trees and in a short time is able to destroy them a significant amount.Actively developing estimates of location on dead wood, contributing to its degradation.
the tubular mushrooms are
- Boletus edulis.
- Butter mushrooms.
- boletus boletus.
Mushrooms, which are typical of the stalk and a hat, the lower part of which is made up of small holes to form spores.Among tubular no poisonous mushrooms, but there is conditionally edible, which require prior preparation before use.Meet them can only be in a wooded area, they do not grow in the open air.By
plate mushrooms are agaric, saffron, mushroom, honey agaric and others.Their main difference from the tube - the presence of the plates at the bottom of the cap, where the spores are formed.Color spore powder often helps to recognize the form of the fungus - edible or poisonous.
to poisonous mushrooms are
- pale grebe (absolutely poisonous mushrooms).
- Satanic mushroom
- False mushrooms (toxicity can be reduced when cooked).
The above fungi isolated in separate sub-species of fungi.They have become toxic due to unfavorable environmental conditions.
Total 32 species of poisonous mushrooms.Most of them are harmless - a poisonous mushroom, undercooked estimates of location - can cause an upset in one hour after eating.The second group - hallucinogens - characterized by indigestion, sweating, nausea and vomiting, which occur within 2 hours after a meal.It is also possible manifestation of the attacks of laughter, crying, etc.The third group - a pale toadstool, sulfur-yellow honey agaric - cause damage to the liver, kidneys and other vital organs, causing irreversible processes.
Given that the world of mushrooms is very poorly understood, then determine what are the mushrooms, rather relative and unstable.Maybe tomorrow the next discovery will change our perception of them.