How to make a roof ?
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One of the stages of construction of the house is the construction of the roof.About her today and will be discussed in our article.
First, we note that attach to the wall of the house lower part of the load-bearing frame of the roof there are two methods:
- to a special wooden block having a size of 15x15 cm in section, referred to as mauerlat;
- to the joists.
In the first embodiment, the load of the weight of the roof evenly distributed over the entire wall structure.If you choose the second, ensure the strength of the beams and walls, as they will have to bear the weight of the entire roof.
Step technology building roof
construction work in the construction of the roof are carried out in strict accordance with established procedure.
Step One.How to make the rafters
begin to do with the construction of the roof should be load-bearing frame.For this rafters fastened together at the top by the end connection using the nails of at least 150 mm long.Then, stepping back down a bit, about 60-70 cm for both the transverse rafters nailed board (it turns out that a type "A" letter).Thus prepared trusses desired number of calculating their installation every 50 cm (this is ideally allowed, and slightly greater distance).
The next phase - installation of roof trusses.Initially placed extreme on both sides of the roof.Their lower ends must advocate for the wall of a house about 20 cm. For their attachment to the mauerlat or beams used 200-millimeter nails.To increase the strength of the structure must be added on both sides of the additional attachment - mowing.On one side they are attached to the ceiling beam, the other - to the rafter board.
After installing the outer rafters attempting to install the rest.Start from the middle and moving to the edges.During the install ridge board that holds together the extreme and central rafter.It firmly binds the whole frame and make secure further work with him.
Step Two.How to make a crate
After the frame of rafters installed and securely fastened, embarking on his crate.Make it two ways:
- continuous type system.Performed in two coats, the seams of which are crossing in a row.The material of the base layer acts Edged board, the second layer - waterproof plywood.This method is considered more difficult, compared to the second;
- thinned system.With this method boards are stacked with a distance of 5 cm between them and with an overlap of 25 cm in extreme edge rafters.Each board must be attached to the rafters with two nails.This method is more simple, and therefore used more often.
Step Three.How to make insulation
This step is very important in the construction of the roof.Often in winter you can observe the following picture: on the one roof is snow, while on the other it melts.The first version shows the good thermal insulation - all the heat remains inside the house, the second - lack of good produces insulating materials, which leads to the fact that a significant portion of the heat leaves the room through the roof.
To avoid this, it is important to perform insulation and roof insulation.The insulation material can be used roofing material.It is laid vertically on top of crates with an overlap of 15 cm. To the board is attached with nails of medium size with a big hat.
Thermal insulation made from the inside of the roof.Between rafters laid special material, most often it is mineral wool or foam.
Step Four.How to make the roof
roof decking is the final stage of the construction of the roof.Consider the example of stacking technology material such as slate.Work begins always from the bottom, with the first three rows strictly vymeryat, at the slightest deviation from the smooth lines of the sheets stacked again.
When longitudinal installation lap top row of slate on the bottom is at least 10-15 cm With cross -. Each sheet comes to another by at least one "wave".Attach sheets of slate you need special nails that you can buy at any hardware store.
construction plus the roof with his hands
can see an example of this technology that make the roof alone is not too difficult, and most importantly, such a construction has several advantages.
- This option is simple, does not require the use of expensive materials and, therefore, will not lead to large financial expenditures;
- can save on a team of builders, as in the construction of the roof on this technology is quite capable to handle on their own (with the involvement of a pair of helpers);
- Another huge plus is that deciding to make the roof of your hands, you can always be sure of the quality of work done;
- Even the lack of experience is not an obstacle, because of the global network, you can find a selection of videos, which clearly shows the implementation of each stage of construction of the roof.
types of roofs
Before you start to do the roof, should get more information about the types of roofs and materials that are used in their construction.
Roofs of this type are lightweight, simple in construction and does not require a large amount of roofing material.The speed of construction and savings of material investments are advantages in choosing the type of roof.
By cons include the small size of the attic or its absence, and not too attractive, because of which Shed roofs do not happen very often.
gable roof This type is more common because of its visual appeal and the possibility to arrange a spacious attic space or attic.In addition, the sun's rays warm up a roof on both sides, and to create living space in the roof space it will serve as an additional source of heat and light.
Compared to this type of pent roof has a heavy weight and requires a larger flow of building materials.Also, for a gable roof, and need to make a horse trough in which the roof will drain rainwater.
most time consuming and expensive type of roofing.For its construction requires certain skills.The complexity of the performance of work makes the construction of hipped roof is not the most popular with independent building.In addition, this roof has too much weight and requires additional measures to strengthen the load-bearing structures.
The advantages include the beautiful appearance, large attic room, the possibility of solar heating from four sides.
This type of roof is ideal for coating tiered structure.She looks very harmonious and fits easily into any landscape area.The roof of this type can be constructed separate sites and to use the different types of roofs.There are still such varieties: mansard roof (refer to the gable) and the type of tent (include a hipped).
materials and tools for construction materials
Before the start of construction work should prepare the necessary material.
- For the construction of the roof frame and rafters need the best material for their production are coniferous trees (they are easier to be processed).Cant make a width of 10-15 cm and a thickness of not less than 5 cm;
- material for the crates is a wooden beam or board, impregnated with a special antiseptic that protects the wood from rotting.The usual size of boards is 10 cm wide, has a thickness of 2.5-3 cm;
- At insulation and roof insulation in addition to the popular materials, mineral wool and foam, you can use other:
- Ecowool, or pulp, of which in addition to mineral wool include antiseptics, paper and boric acid;
- Foam materials.Available in the form of plates or in special cylinders;
- Fiberglass, or as it is often called, wool.This material is characterized by an elasticity softness and elasticity.Able to warm the surface of various shapes;
- wool.It is a natural environmentally friendly insulation.Absolutely harmless to humans, but has a high cost;
- to cover the roof, you can choose any of the roofing materials, such as:
- tiles (cement-sand, bitumen, ceramic);
- metal tiles (galvanized sheet steel);
- smooth steel (to create a long-lasting standing seam roofing);
To make the roof with his hands is required to prepare not only the materials, but also tools.You will need:
- metal scissors (for metal roofing);
- saw and hacksaw;
- roofing mites;
- mallet (mallet);
- drill and so on. N.