As referred to the eye?
complex organ of the human body - the eye.It is so unique that no one constructor telescope can create a more sophisticated mechanism.Let us open the interesting facts about how the eye is called today, we will see their old name and tell you some useful information about the eyes.
word "eye" translated from Polish means "polished stone" or "kruglyash".Therefore, it was used earlier in the figurative sense, but later replaced the old Slavic word "eye".Most likely, the "eye" is derived from the Indo-European word "oki" - watch.This is how the word "optometrist" and "okulirovat".Although the "eye" today - the official name of the "eye" in the Ukrainian language.However, as it is called eye or even referred to them before?
In Greek "Opthalmo" means "eye," and in all the words, which used this root, he points to a direct relationship to the visually impaired.For example, an ophthalmologist - eye doctor, for eye diseases specialist.A science of the eye, its diseases, treatment and prevention called ophthalmology.And even one of the eye diseases, namely inflammation, called ophthalmia.
What is called the eye, or rather, their disease that leads to blindness?Such a severe eye disease called glaucoma, which is characterized by increased intraocular pressure.
Looking at the structure of the eye, we can see that in the retina of the eye receptors are located.Call them the rods and cones.Sticks irritated only dim light, and cones - only bright, and they give color vision person.Thus, in the retina of the light is converted into nerve impulses, and they are transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain.In the visual area of the cerebral cortex there is a distinction of forms of objects, their size, color, location, and movement.
absence of one of the three types of cones results in color blindness.This disease does not allow a person to distinguish between certain colors.
But there is still a disease - heterochromia, it manifests itself in a different color eyes.This phenomenon is very rare, and it does not affect the function of vision.It leads to it lack or excess of melanin (pigment).Holders of the eye of the chameleon, recognized that the color changes on their mood, time of day, the state of health.But this variability allows to adapt to life.