What are antonyms ?

What are antonyms ?

Even if you have long been out of school, it is still not too late to find out that such opposites, including contextual.Opposites - these are the words of one part of speech to the opposite of lexical meanings, contrasting phenomena: the good - evil, true - false, say - to remain silent, a lot - a little, up - down, appear - disappear.Opposites - a couple of words, based always on a common attribute (height, weight, quality, quantity, feeling, time of day, area), but the values ​​are opposite.

It should now be clear that such words are antonyms.However, this is not all the necessary information.In proper names, pronouns, numerals and no antonyms.However, the official word can also be linked antonymous relations: the pros and cons, with and without (They like to drink tea with sugar and without).

Classification words, antonyms

The structure of speech, antonyms are divided into:

  • raznokornevye (forward - back);
  • single rooted: they are produced with the help of opposite sense on consoles (input - output), as well as using the prefix that is added to the original word (exclusive - antitrust).

Usually antonyms include raznokorennye words, but some linguists believe antonyms and such pairs of words: calm - restless, big - small, love - not love.There antonym formed by the negative particle "not" consoles "devil", "no", etc.

From the point of view of language and speech have antonyms:..

  • language (of usual): they exist in the language system (loud- quiet);
  • speech (occasional) occur in a particular context.Most often they are found in proverbs and poetry.

So what is contextual antonyms?Contextual antonyms - words that are opposed in a particular context.This phenomenon is individually-author's character: wolves and sheep (as you know, the polarity of the meaning of these words is not fixed in the language).Writer can open opposite qualities in certain concepts and to oppose them in the speech: the sunlight - the moonlight, one year - the whole of life, not a mother, and a daughter.The juxtaposition of these concepts can not be played in the language.This occasional (contextual, speech) antonyms.

Opposites in terms of action are:

  • proportionate: refer to the action and reaction (richer - peter out, get up - go to bed);
  • disproportionate: broadly denote action and lack of action (to light - no light, thinking - change one's mind).

ambiguous words and their antonyms

different meanings of ambiguous words can have different antonyms.

example:.. Fresh bread - stale bread, fresh idea - the idea battered, crisp evening - sultry evening, etc.


Opposites may serve as a means of poetic expression.This technique is called antithesis.Basically, the antithesis is characteristic of poetic and oratorical speech: "Black night, white snow" (Blok).The antithesis is found in the titles: "Thick and Thin" (Chekhov), "Fathers and Sons" (Turgenev),

So, now you know what antonyms, examples of these pairs of words for youis not difficult.Remember that such contextual antonyms and antithesis.