What is metonymy ?
Consider what a metonymy.It is a phrase in which a word is replaced by another.But not to be confused with a metaphor metonymy.
Marcus Fabius Quintilian, known as the Roman philosopher, gave the classic definition of metonymy.He said that its essence is manifested in the fact that the substitution described by its cause.This means that the concept of metonymy replaces the one related to the first.For example:
- material from which made a certain thing, instead of the name of this thing ( "ate on silver" instead of "eating on a silver plate").
- Instead of a specific abstract noun (eg, the mother of the child: "That is my joy!").Instead
- content - containing, instead of ownership - its owner ( "I eat another plate" instead of saying exactly what people want to eat).
- Instead, the subject - it attribute ( "man in blue" rather than to say what kind of clothes in blue was a man).
When considering what metonymy examples help you better figure it out.Metonymy sets the adjacent link, and in that it manifests the essence.
Communication can be:
- between certain objects and materials that were used for its creation.For example, instead of plates indicate the material from which it is made: "It's not on the silver - Gold eaten" (Griboyedov).
- From content to contain it.For example, instead of eating utensils used in food which is: "Well, even a plate to eat the same, my dear!" (Krylov).
- between some action and an instrument by which it is made.For example, instead of writing text using the object to which the text writes: "The pen is breathing its place" (Tolstoy).
- between the author and the work, which he wrote: "I read with pleasure Apuleius, and Cicero did not read" (Pushkin).
- between the people and the place where they are located, "But quiet was our bivouac open" (Lermontov).
literature Consider what a metonymy in the literature.It involves the use of substitute words in a figurative sense.Often in the literature of metonymy confused with a metaphor.Again, that metonymy replaces the word contiguity and metaphor - by similarity.Synecdoche - a kind of metonymy, such as: "All flags are to visit us", the flags are replaced with ships of other countries.
When metonymy stands subject property or phenomenon that supersedes all others.Metonymy Therefore, unlike metaphors, firstly, more realistically connected with replaceable members, and secondly, it limits or eliminates the features of this phenomenon for a minor.And the metaphor and metonymy are used in everyday speech.But of particular importance is the metonymy in the works of literary figures.
in Russian literature of the 20th century constructivists the most of metonymy.They put forward the principle of "locality", which meant a motivation speech means the idea of the work, limiting their dependence on the topic.However, metonymy can not be countered by the metaphor.And metonymy, metaphor, and complement each other, establish relationships between phenomena and enrich the language works.
types of metonymy
- Spatial - brings physical, spatial relationships of objects, phenomena, types of objects that are closely related to them.Example: the audience applauded.It is understood that people clap their hands, but this action is transferred to the audience itself.
- Time - the name of a specific action is transferred to the result.Example: The new edition of the book.Here edition result in the sense used instead action.
- logic - the transfer of the activity name, author's name, the name of the starting material, and so the final result of the action, the product, the product, etc. In such a metonymy refers to a clear logical connection.....Example: "looked at Ozhigova" - means Ozhigova Dictionary.
- common language - used by many people all over the place.Example: beautiful porcelain (meaning porcelain).
- Obschepoeticheskaya metonymy, popular poetry.Example: azure sky.
- Obschegazetnaya, also called obschemediynoy.Example: the first band.
- individually-author.Example: daisy Russia.
When using metonymy consciously or unconsciously enhanced expressive works of language, reveals the richness of vocabulary.Metonymy helps to perceive the connection of several related concepts that are often not homogeneous.
Lexicology, poetics, semantics, rhetoric style in its concepts are widely used metonymy.Metonymy is effective in both short-term and long-term effects of speech, for example: the dove of peace.
Modern science believes that metonymy is not only speech, but also logical, as if to argue broadly, and cognitive properties, deeply engaging in the process of thinking and knowledge of the world.