As the processor is running ?
Today, almost every home has a computer.Without it difficult to imagine life today.Search the information you need, browse news and weather, the purchase and sale of goods, movies and programs - all this can be done without leaving home and without any special effort.Just you need to turn on the computer and surf the internet.
But few people think about what is in your computer, whereby you can quickly obtain the necessary information.One of the main components of a computer is the processor.Having understood how the processor, you can clarify a lot of new.
central processing unit, or as it is called in the world of informatics - CPU - is the main component of any computer, it is his heart and brain.This processor performs all the commands specified by the user, processes the information and controls other devices computer.
Today, the main processor manufacturers are Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), which for a long time, there are the information technology market and showed itself only with the best hand.Naturally, there are other manufacturers, but the level of these giant companies they are still very far away.Interestingly, Intel and AMD are constantly fighting for supremacy in the product processors, alternately gaining the first position with the release of new models.Ironically, it is this struggle gives rise to constant quality development in the area of information technology.
begin to examine the computer processor unit must be with his appearance.At first glance, it's just a metal box on the reverse side of which is a small board measuring approximately 5x5 cm, and a variety of contacts with which a processor is attached to the motherboard.millions are in the middle of the processor, and sometimes even billions of different transistors, which perform most of the work.
What is processor
processor itself consists mainly of sand - or rather, silicon, which is only 30% of the earth's crust.The formation of processors rather complicated, requires special equipment and material costs.In short, manufacturing processors scheme is somewhat similar to the photo printing technology - used in its manufacture photolithography technology.In the role of pictures there are the "pancakes" - future processors, which greatly accelerated with the help of a special accelerator boron ions create tiny structure with a plurality of transistors.And the process is thinner, the more power and speed of a given structure.Every year, the size of these structural elements is less and in a short time, scientists project that they can reach only about 15 nm.
Further, this semiconductor structured part is placed on the board, and attached wires to attach the processor to the motherboard - CPU ready!
can remove the cover and examine the interior of the processor unit, but then there is a risk of damaging the subtle details that may lead to malfunction.
With the device and processor time change qualitatively.Decreases and the size of processors.Today, used virtually the same principles of processors as before, only the size of components changed.
Inside the processor device is also very interesting.It consists of a general architecture - all that includes fee core (by operation of which depends on the speed of the computer), the tire (mounts that are connected to the motherboard) and audit (particles that are smaller than the core, but also veryessential and functional).
speed of your computer's reaction to the set of commands can depend on several factors: the number of cores, the number of threads (not the same as the number of cores), the size of the cache - processor's internal memory, clock, speed, tires, as well as of the technical processproducing processor.
The principle of
detailed study of the device, you can now consider the principle of operation of the processor.The computer begins its work after receiving a specific command from the user.
But few know that each team consists of two parts - operating and operand:
- operational part of the team shows that the computer will,
- second part of the team gives the processor operands - something over which should work processor.
Some processors may include two conveyors, iecomputing unit.Each of them shared the command given by the user's computer into several stages: production, decoding (ie decryption command), execution of the command itself, to the processor memory handling and storing the results.All these steps are done as soon as possible.When the conveyor every stage discharged one clock frequency of the same name, so the implementation of each command in the processor discharged five cycles.
Cache memory of any processor increases performance.Today decided to use two cache memory, becauseUse one led to conflicts when executing commands.This is due to the fact that the two teams often tried to take information from one cache memory.Separate caching eliminates the occurrence of similar situations and enables the two commands to be executed simultaneously.
Analyzing how the computer processor, it is worth considering the fact that the computing processors are different: linear, branched, and cyclic.
- Linear processors execute commands depending on the order they were recorded in the memory.
- cyclic and branching processors execute commands depending on the results of testing branch conditions.
It is also important to know how to operate the processor bus.They can be two, one, fast bus runs to the cache memory of the second level, the second bus (slower) is designed to work on the exchange of information with other devices.