How do I get salt?
salts - chemical compounds that have a complex structure, and in the water break up (dissociate) on metal and acid residue.Metal at the same time is a cation and the acid radical - anion.The salts can be formed by the interaction of foundations (bases) and acid during the reaction water released.Salts are purely inorganic materials, but can also be formed with organic radicals.
How do I get salt in many ways
salts can be obtained not only by the reaction of acids and bases, there are many other methods of forming these substances in the chemical industry or laboratories.Here are some examples.
interaction of simple substances:
- 2K + S → K2S
- Na + Cl → NaCl
In this way, the salt can be obtained only in the laboratory, under certain conditions (high temperatures or pressure).
neutralization, which involves alkali and acid:
- H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O,
where of H2SO4 - sulfuric acid, NaOH - sodium hydroxide, Na.sub.2SO.sub.4 - sulfate sodium salt;
- NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O,
where HCl - hydrochloric acid, NaCl - sodium chloride (table salt).
reaction between oxides (you must take an alkaline and an acidic oxide, to obtain a salt):
- K2O + SO3 → K2SO4 (potassium sulfate);
- CaO + Mn2O7 → Ca (MnO4) 2 (calcium permanganate).
Interaction of salts and acids.In this scenario, the interchange of ions, as a result, a new salt:
- VaSІ + H2SO4 → BaSO4 ↓ + 2HCl,
where BaSO4 - barium sulphate, insoluble compound (salt);
- 2 NaCl + H2SO4 (conc.) → Na2SO4 + 2HCl,
where Na2SO4 - sulphate sodium (salt);
- CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 ↑ + H2O,
where CaCl2 - calcium chloride.
During reaction produces carbonic acid H2CO3, which is an unstable compound and immediately breaks down into water and carbon dioxide.
salt is also obtained by the interaction of salt and base.Here are some examples of formulas:
- CuCl2 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Cu (OH) 2 ↓,
where of CuCl2 - copper chloride, Cu (OH) 2 - copper hydroxide, which precipitates;
- KNSO4 + KOH → K2SO4 + H2O,
where KNSO4 - potassium sulfate, KOH - potassium hydroxide, K2SO4 - potassium sulphate (salt).
The reaction with alkalis enter the water-soluble salts.This should be taken into account when the product of reactions for the formation of new salts.
exchange reaction by reacting the two salts:
- CuSO4 + VaCl2 → CuCl2 + VaSO4 ↓,
where of CuSO4 - copper sulfate (II), VaCl2 - chloride of barium, of CuCl2 - Cuprum chloride VaSO4 - barium sulphate (salt,which is insoluble and precipitates);
- AgNO3 + KSІ → AgCl ↓ + KNO3,
where of AgNO3 - silver nitrate, KSІ - potassium chloride, of AgCl - silver chloride (precipitated), KNO3 - potassium nitrate.
acid reaction with oxides (well actually a reaction of neutralization):
- CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O,
where CuO - copper oxide,
- H2SO4 + CuO → CuSO4 + H2O
metal interaction withacid (hydrogen substitution reaction in acid).In such reactions can join metals, which in the electrochemical series (active metal) are to the left of Hydrogen.They displace hydrogen and combined with acidic residues, while forming new connections - salt:
- Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2 ↑,
of ZnSO4 where - zinc sulphate (salt).During the reaction hydrogen is released as a gas;
- Fe + H2SO4 (dil.) → FeSO4 + H2 ↑,
where FeSO4 - ferric sulfate (II).
metal substitution reaction in salt, when the most active metal displaces the more passive of salt, forming a new substance (the strength of metal exposure, the higher the left of it is in the range of activity of metals):
- Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2 ↑
There are a lot more complex methods of producing salt subject to the availability equipped chemical laboratory.