How to get alcohol ?
There are many ways to produce food and industrial alcohol.These methods can be divided into two groups - the chemical and biochemical.Thus produced by the first synthetic alcohols (technical) and by second - Bio alcohol (edible).
How to get alcohol by fermentation
wine or ethyl alcohol can be obtained by different chemical and biochemical methods.The oldest and most common method is the alcoholic fermentation followed by dehydration (water removal).
production of ethyl alcohol is quite complex by fermentation involving yeast.It is established that the fermentation provoke not the yeast, and allocated them specific substances - Zymase.During fermentation C6H12O6 glucose is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the following equation:
- C6H12O6 → 2CO2 + energy + 2S2N5ON
where CO2 - carbon dioxide, and C2H5OH - ethyl alcohol.
alcoholic fermentation may be subject, not only glucose but also other sweeteners contained in nature as a plant component (eg, juice).What is obtained in this case, alcohol?.. From potato, sugar beet, wheat, oats, rice, etc. If
alcohol obtaining the raw material rich in starch, it must first resist saccharification - conversion of starch into sugars by the action of certain enzymes.This reaction takes place according to the following formula:
- (S6N10O5) n + + ENZYME nN2O → nS6N12O6
where (S6N10O5) n - starch.
is much easier after the conversion of starch into sugar further to obtain ethanol from glucose.If the alcohol used in the preparation of sugar-containing raw materials, the process is reduced to fermentation sweetener tucked juice processing.
fermented raw materials distilled through the distillation process.For that alcohol-containing liquid is heated (heated to boiling).When boiling the alcohol evaporates and enters the distillation column, and then to reflux.The dephlegmator pair contact with the cooled surface, condense, draining the tank and form a liquid alcohol.Hydration
The alcohol may be derived from ethylene (gas) in the presence of a concentrated strong acids (phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid).The process is carried out in an autoclave.Sulfuric acid hydration occurs on such a scheme:
- C2H4 + of H2SO4 → S2N5O2-SO2
- H3C-CH2-O SO2ON + H-O-H → H3C-CH2-OH + H2SO4
overall equation is:
- H2C = CH2 + H2O → H3C-CH2-OH (in the presence of sulfuric acid H2SO4)
Other methods for producing alcohols
How to obtain an alcohol of alkane (its halogen derivative)?It requires a reaction that occurs on hydrolysis type.The result is ethyl alcohol and salt - sodium chloride:
- S2N5SІ + NaOH → NaCl + S2N5OH
To get alcohol from ketones or aldehydes, it is necessary to carry out the reaction of these compounds ethynylation (another name - the reaction of Tabor).In the reaction come ketones, alkynes and aldehydes (formaldehyde often is) in a basic medium (for example, KOH).The reaction takes place on such a scheme:
- RC≡CH + CH2O → RC≡C-CH2OH
- HC≡CH + 2CR2O → HOCR2-C≡C-CR2OH
where R - the radical C n H 2n + 1
How to get alcoholby hydrolysis of the ester?It is worth knowing that the hydrolysis itself - is a chemical process in which water is exposed to decay (decomposition) precursors to form new compounds.Hydrolysis of esters to form alcohols takes place according to the following equation:
- RO-OR + NaOH → RO-ONa + HO-R
- R - radical CnH2n + 1
- R - radical SnNn +2
- RO-OR - Live
- NaOH - sodium hydroxide
- RO-ONa - carboxylate sodium
- HO-R - alcohol
from acetic acid to obtain alcohol in several ways.
- Hydrogenation Acid: CH3COOH + 2H2 → H2 O + C2H5OH (the process takes place in the presence of a nickel or platinum)
- regeneration derivatives of acetic acid (or other carboxylic acid) CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3-CO-O-C2H5 + H2O (inthe presence of sulfuric acid forms an ester - ethyl acetate).CH3-CO-O-C2H5 + Na [C2H5OH] → C2H5OH + S2N5ONa
- direct recovery of acetic acid or other possible to produce an alcohol by reaction with lithium aluminum hydride.That process, the final equation: 4CH3-COOH + LiAlH4 → 4CH3-CH2-OH + Al (OH) 3 + LiOH
described methods (from alkanes, acids, ketones, aldehydes, and other starting materials) to give crude alcohol.Food alcohol from various raw materials is obtained only by fermentation.