What is the acid ?
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This class of chemical compounds such as acids, known to mankind since ancient times.A distinctive feature of these substances is a sour taste for which they get their name.And the oxygen gets its name from the title acid as it was considered a compulsory component of Lavoisier acids, which proved a delusion.
Today, many known acid not containing oxygen in its composition.And a huge number of compounds containing oxygen, but non-acids.
acids and their properties
also acid chemistry called complex substances having in its molecule, and hydrogen acid residue.
Many scientists called their definition of acids and isolated by a variety of properties which are determined by acid.So, today the most widely used unit at a Bronsted acid and Lewis.
- Bronsted acid is called a chemical compound or ion, capable of donating a proton to another compound called base.
- Lewis acid is a substance that forms a pair with a Lewis base, taking its electron pair.This theory covers a large scope of chemical compounds and is more inclusive and shared.
Acids - are the various substances that have certain common characteristics, namely:
- sour taste, which we have already spoken.
- presence of hydrogen in compounds that atoms can be exchanged for the metal to form a salt.
- and ability to translate litmus red.
All properties listed above are present in acid thanks to their hydrogen cations.Oxygenated
acid may decompose to an oxide and water.
Anoxic razlagayutsyana simple to simple substances.
In its state of aggregation may be in solid, liquid (oily) and gaseous form.
addition acids react with bases and oxides.
Some acids have a smell and color.
You can also read the article Properties acids.
acids are divided into different classifications:
- terms of the number of hydrogen ions, which can move the molecule, acid separated into monobasic and polybasic (dibasic, tribasic).
- In the presence of oxygen in the acid molecule divided by oxygenated and oxygen-free.By
- carbon compound in the presence of acid is divided into organic and inorganic.
- By the force of dissociation of the acid divided by the very strong (dissociate almost completely), strong, medium, weak and very weak.On this topic, you can read the article What is more acid.Separate
- volatile acid also capable of traveling in air and non-volatile.
- resistant to chemical structure stable and unstable, quickly decomposing or turning into another form in normal environmental conditions.
- The last criterion is the separation of acid compound properties of the solution in the water.And allocate accordingly: soluble and insoluble.
addition, acids can be subdivided according to the principle of hard and soft acids and bases: on the hard, medium and soft.
Examples of acids and their application
- Many famous Aqua regia - one of the most powerful acids, which easily dissolves the metals except silver.Formed by mixing two well-known inorganic acids: hydrochloric nitric HCl and HNO3 in a ratio of 1: 3.Open aqua regia was unknown alchemist and first described in Europe in the 14th century.
- H2SO4 Sulfuric acid is widely used in car batteries, based on its reaction with lead.More about it can be found in the article Properties of sulfuric acid.
- Boric acid H3BO3 is widely used in jewelry, soldering and smelting of precious metals, both independently and as part of protection and restoration of flux.
- And a huge amount of other inorganic acids finding the most different applications in our lives.
- Formic acid CH2O2 (methane acid), used as a dietary supplement, is an example of a monobasic organic acid.
- And everyone knows citric acid C6H8O7, used in cooking and in particular in the preparation of all of your favorite sodas, tribasic is a complex organic compound.
- benzoic acid C7H6O2 - simple monobasic acid, for the first time produced in the 16th century, and is used as an antiseptic and as a preservative and as a calibration standard teploizmeryayuschih devices (calorimeters).
- Lactic acid C3H6O3, first discovered in the sour milk, the main source of carbohydrates in the vital activity of living organisms, including humans.This is food for our brain and the entire nervous system.
- most amazing acid, the basis of life on earth - the DNA.Heard about it, probably everyone.Without exception, all known to man sophisticated living beings have in themselves this amazing acid, by means of which is encoded, stored, and transmitted to future generations the information accumulated over the life of a living being.
As you can see, the world is extremely diverse acids.The fact that we have reviewed today is only a small fraction of the huge world acids, their properties and qualities.The scope of these chemicals is limitless.
You can also read the article What are the acid there.