What are antibodies ?

What are antibodies ?

Our health depends on the state of immunity.If the immune system is weak, we will constantly get cold, get sick, even more "knock down" state already weakened immune system.Then there are already chronic "sores" that lead to serious diseases.How to break this vicious circle?

Antibodies The immune system consists of various organs, but the main role in it played by leukocytes (white blood cells) and antibodies.Let us now look at what is an antibody?Antibodies - are specific proteins that are produced by cells of our immune system.They are needed in order to fight the antigens.

Most first antibody were openly Kitazato and Bering in 1890.In addition, however, that the nature of the antibody (namely, tetanus antitoxin) has a specific nature and is present in the serum imunnogo animal was nothing specific can be said.Only research and Kabat Tizeliusa conducted gave rise to the study of the molecular bases of antibodies since 1937.

The antibodies can be both protein molecule and protein-free.Protein molecules as antigen - this may be, for example, viruses and various bacteria, cancer cells, "foreign cells" (these cells can enter the body through blood transfusions, organ transplants, etc.).It should be noted that the antibodies exhibit some specificity.In other words, specific antibodies can affect certain antigens.For example, serum antibodies when administered to a disease, but at the same time, the serum will have no effect in other diseases, as this disease in the body is another antigen.

As fighting antibodies to antigens

fighting antibodies to antigens in several ways:

  1. They combine antigens (cells) in some heaps so that they could not move.Thereafter, they are absorbed by macrophages - cells that are capable of engulfing and digesting active bacteria.
  2. form a "hole" in the wall antigens, as a result of their content "flows" and the cells die.
  3. blocks the antigens.This allows the cells of our immune system to destroy those cells.

main functions are as antibodies recognizing and binding to antigen, and subsequently, the destruction of damaged cells.Antibodies are produced in response to the receipt in our bodies various antigens.What are antibodies?Thyroid peroxidase is, for example - it is specific immunoglobulins, which are directed against the enzyme contained in the cells of our thyroid gland.What

antibody in blood

Using laboratory method can determine the presence or absence of antibodies and / or antigens in the blood.This is called a immunoassay technique.The analysis may be quantitative (determines the number of antibodies or antigens) and qualitative (indicating the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens).Often, to perform the analysis of biological material is blood for research, but also can be used cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, and others.

For example, to identify a specific virus antigen blood it is necessary to make an antibody specific for that virus.Conversely, to determine the presence and amount of antibodies in the blood, the blood must add to antigens specific for the antibody.Immunoassay analysis will determine the blood level of hormones, antibodies, immune complexes and other biologically active substances.Scope of this analysis is wide enough - immunodeficiency diagnosis, endocrinology, tumor markers, diagnosis of viral diseases such as herpes, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis.What are antibodies to hepatitis C?For all hepatitis C antibodies have anti HCV abbreviation.It literally means "against the hepatitis C virus."To determine whether human infection with the hepatitis C virus uses other than ELISA, yet screening tests.

Now you know that antibodies play a crucial role in our body.They help the immune system to detect and neutralize foreign objects.