What is immunity?
This article will talk about what is the immune system, the types of the immune system and its functions.Immunity is called immunity to infection and resistance to the effects of foreign substances (with antigenic properties).Immune responses also appear on the body's own cells that changed antigenically.The biological function of immune system - ensuring a lifetime of an organism its genetic integrity.Here is a brief that is immunity.The following discussion focuses on types of immunity.
innate and adaptive immunity
Immunity has the following types: congenital and acquired.So, what is innate immunity?Innate immunity is caused by anatomical, physiological, cellular molecular features that are fixed genetically.Examples: human immunity to the plague of dogs, some people's immunity to tuberculosis.Innate immunity - the ability, inherent in the body, to neutralize potentially dangerous biological material (bacteria, toxins, tumor cells, graft cells infected with a virus).This ability to exist originally, ie before the first hit of this biomaterial in the body.
Innate immunity is sometimes called non-specific and konstitutsionnym.Odnako currently the term "constitutional immunity" is considered obsolete.This phenomenon is not studied in immunology.Innate immunity is not to be confused with the constitutional, as in the case of the constitutional immunity usually do not have the immune response: the pathogen simply can not penetrate into the body iliprichinit harmful if penetration opportunities.
And now that a specific immunity.Acquired (specific) immunity manifests itself in the body's ability to neutralize foreign, potentially dangerous microorganisms which previously ingested.This is the result of lymphocytes that are located throughout the body.
Acquired immunity may be:
- active (appears after administration of the vaccine or as a result of this illness);
- passive (transmission ready develops antibodies to the newborn or fetal way maternal colostrum and when administered into the body in the form of finished serum antibody).
natural and artificial immunity
- natural (innate immunity, acquired after the disease active immunity, in the case of passive transfer of antibodies from mother to child);
- artificial (acquired after the introduction of active, passive vaccine purchased - the introduction of serum).
Now that this cell-mediated immunity.This type of immune response which are not involved in antibody and complement system.When macrophages are activated by cellular immunity, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells and cytokines released in response to an antigen.Historically
immune system consists of two parts:
- humoral immune system (the protection functions performed molecules that are in the blood plasma and cellular elements not);
- cellular immune system (immune system cells is a protective function).
Cellular immunity is mainly directed against the microorganisms that survive in phagocytes or affect other cells.Especially effective system of cellular immunity against cells that are infected with viruses.Also, cell-mediated immunity is involved in protection against protozoa, intracellular bacteria, fungi, tumor cells.
about how to improve immunity, read our article "How to boost immunity?".