What is gasoline?
Probably everyone has ever asked this question.What is gasoline?Gasoline is the lightest fraction of oil.During the processing of oil and gas produced.Composition of gasoline - a molecule with a length of from C 5 to C 10.But different types of gasoline vary in composition and properties, since it is obtained not only as one kind of primary sublimation oil.Get out of gasoline and associated gas.
- Petrol gas is a product of processed associated gas, which contains at least three hydrocarbons with a total number of atoms.Options are unstable natural gasoline (BGN) and stable (BGS).BGS is divided into two brands - light (BL) and heavy (BT).All this applies to petrochemical and used as raw material.
- cracked gasoline is a product of further refining.Distillation of the oil gives the usual way only 10-20% of the gasoline.To increase its volume using heavy or high boiling fraction is heated to break large molecules into smaller sizes included in the gasoline composition.All this is called cracking.Interesting fact - the cracking of heavy fuel oil is conducted at high temperatures 450-550 ° C.
What makes gasoline
This question is very relevant today.Pyrolysis is a process that occurs at temperatures of 700-800 ° C.The total yield of gasoline using cracking and pyrolysis can be increased to 85%.Also it should be noted that the cracking discovered and created the project plant for it in 1891, Russian engineer VG Shukhov.
Gasoline addition to classification for octane, and has its other classification and species, which are used not only to produce fuel for engines.
Features and applications In addition to these kinds of them also include: BBC (stands for "gasoline" for domestic purposes "), gasoline secondary processes in manufacturing absorbent oligomerizat and BOC (rasshifrovka-" gasoline for industrial purposes ").
What is gasoline and how it is produced?Gasoline brands such as A-76, H-80, AI-92, AI-95 and AI-98 petroleum refining plants are prepared by mixing the fuel components.The process of compounding, the so-called mixed, should be strictly and clearly regulated, and the final product comply with GOST, and only then the output will gasoline with an octane number of accurate.
The octane number is a measure of the properties in which the motor fuel detonates.Compared to gasoline izooktanovoy mixture and heptane.Provided that the octane number of gasoline is equal to 95, it will detonate a mixture of 95% isooctane and 5% heptane.After the initial driving of the oil octane number of gasoline is not more than 70. Quality Improvement for the low grade gasoline is done not only through compounding, but also with anti-knock agents (up 0.3%).Until now one of the most common additive is a substance tetraethyl Pb (C 2 H 5) 4, mixed with C 2 H 5 Br.With their combustion releases the volatile bromide lead, which is released into the atmosphere.To reduce its bad effects on human health and the environment use antidetonators.One of the most famous - methyl ester tert-butyl (MTBE), which has several advantages;as he is deprived of the main drawbacks - the enormous toxicity characteristic of lead.
From which produce gasoline, and how to determine the octane number?Definitions of the real octane number are divided into several methods:
- Method Engine.It was invented by UNOCAL-76, which is the first in the production of AI-76.The essence of this method - timing detonation engine (single piston) in simulated hard drive.For this reason, the octane number can get too low.
- Method Research.Held on the single piston engine without imitation hard drive.A characteristic feature is a little inflated octane.
- chromatographic method.Used as a complement to other methods, usually to identify regulated contaminants (benzene, for example).
Refuel stands where product quality is at the appropriate level.It is better to know where petrol is better with friends and acquaintances, rather than be carried out on advertising.Remember that bad gasoline literally corrodes the engine of your car.