How do the operation?
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Operation - an intervention in the human body is in violation of its integrity.Each disease requires an individual approach, which naturally affects the way in which will be doing the surgery.
How do heart surgery: Preparation for operation
operations on the heart (cardiac) - one of the most difficult to perform, dangerous and responsible kind of surgery.
Planned operations are usually held in the morning.Therefore, the patient in the evening (for 8-10 hours), do not give anything to eat or drink, and immediately before surgery do a cleansing enema.It is necessary to anesthesia acted wrong.
place where they make operations must be sterile.In medical institutions for this purpose use special facilities - operating theaters, which regularly undergo sterilization processing Kvartsevanie and special antiseptics.In addition, the entire medical staff who participated in the operation of the procedure to clean (even have to rinse your mouth with an antiseptic solution), and disguises in a special sterile clothes, put your hands on sterile gloves.
Patients also wear shoe covers, on the head - a hat, but the field is treated with antiseptic surgery.In case of need, before the operation the patient shave hair, if they are covered with the surgical field.All these manipulations are necessary to avoid contamination of the surgical wound with bacteria or other dangerous micro-organisms active.
Anesthesia or anesthesia
narcosis - general anesthesia is the body's immersion in his medical dream.In cardiac surgery, general anesthesia is used, and in some cases, during operations endovideosurgical - spinal in which is puncture the spinal cord at the lumbar level.Introducing the substances causing pain relief may be in different ways - intravenously, via the respiratory tract (inhalation anesthesia), intramuscular, or a combination.
course of open-heart surgery
After a person goes to sleep and medical ceases to feel the pain, the surgery itself begins.The surgeon opens the scalpel through the skin and soft tissues of the chest.In cardiac surgery may also be required to "dissect" the chest.For this purpose, using special surgical instruments sawed edges.Thus, doctors "get" to the operated organ and put on the wound with special extenders that provide the best access to the heart.Nurses using suction to remove surgical field blood and cauterize severed capillaries and blood vessels, so they do not bleed.
If necessary, the patient is connected to an artificial heart to be temporarily pump blood through the body while suspended operable artificial organ.Depending on what do heart surgery (which eliminate the damage), carried out the corresponding manipulation: it can be a replacement of clogged coronary arteries, heart valves replaced with defects, bypass veins or replacement of the whole organ.
from surgery and all personnel required very carefully, because on this depends the life of the patient.It should also be added that during the operation is carried out constant control of blood pressure and other indicators that indicate the status of the patient.
endovideosurgery: coronary stent and angioplasty
Today, more and more manipulation of the heart are not held open way - with a cut of the chest, and with access through the femoral artery in the leg, under the control of the X-ray machine and microscope cameras.Following preparation for surgery, which is the same for all types of surgery and the introduction of a medical patient sleep through an incision in the leg opens access to the femoral artery.It catheter and probe with a camera on the end through which provides access to the heart.
this way in cardiac surgery is performed angioplasty with vascular coronary stent required when clogged coronary arteries that nourish the heart itself with blood.The vasoconstriction installed special stands - cylindrical implants that do not give more clogged arteries, which prevents the possibility of developing coronary disease.
After the main part of the operation comes to an end, and the heart is functioning independently again, made stitching damaged nerves, blood vessels and tissues.The wound was treated again with an antiseptic, cover the surgical field, sewn with special threads, soft tissue and skin.On the external wound dressing applied medical.After all these procedures, the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
operations Besides abdominal operations described above, there are also operations conducted less traumatic way:
- Laparoscopy - performed by laparoscope, which is inserted through the 1-2-cm incisions in the skin.Most often used in gynecology, when gastric resection, and other operations within the abdominal cavity.More information can be found here
- Laser surgery - carried out by a special laser beam.Typically, in such a way do eye surgery, the removal of skin formations, etc.More about the method can be found here