What's a Molotov cocktail ?
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legendary "Molotov cocktail" is actually not a cocktail.Perhaps this is one of the most dangerous weapon of the first years of World War II, intended to undermine the German tanks."Molotov cocktail" was made by napalm technology - had a kerosene base with various fillings.By tradition, it is poured into glass bottles, filled them with incendiary family about two-thirds, and the top is screwed stopper with the wick.Then the soldiers, hiding in camouflaged trenches across the riding tank ignited wick and threw the bottle in a motor grille.And gasoline, which then worked the enemy tanks that have not yet switched to diesel, burning great.
official version of the creation of an incendiary projectile, standing in service in the Soviet army, disputed by many.So, the Finns claimed that they have used such "cocktails" against the Russian soldiers still in 1940, during the Soviet war to Finnish.However, they called their little differently - "for Molotov cocktails."
In fact, what is a "Molotov cocktails", known in Cuba in the XIX century.Local rebels have used them in the fight for independence - they have come up with mixed two-thirds and one-third of kerosene to ignite the rum Spanish barracks.Later, during the Civil War in Spain, the same Cuban revolutionaries used the incendiary mixture, but against the techniques of General Franco.And after the war, the secret flame "drink" spread around the world.
In the USSR, thanks to the efforts of the NKVD "Molotov Cocktail" has been improved, and its production put on stream.One of the most important new features was the white phosphorus - a substance that can burn through armor and ignited simply by contact with air.At the same time it is almost impossible to extinguish.Due to the rapid flammability improved liquid, the soldiers no longer need to set fire to the wick.
greatest damage "Molotov cocktails" have caused the German army in the Battle of Moscow: when the Soviet army was still using cavalry and raided the ranks of the enemy, tossing back the enemy's equipment scorching "gifts".Bottles for "cocktails" were produced in the distillery plant in Lefortovo, and the mixture itself was brought in special trucks, they poured the woman with a hose outside the walls of the factory floor.
It would, perhaps, and accumulated experience in the fierce fighting "cocktail" if in 1942 most of the German tanks have not switched to diesel fuel.A diesel is much harder to ignite.But while the soldiers were on hand over modern weapons, so the need for a more primitive incendiary disappeared.
According to statistics, only in the period of the Great Patriotic War was made seven thousand "cocktails."After the "Molotov cocktails" in 1945 have adopted in many countries.Che Guevara, the head of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, unveiled its own prescription "cocktail" - three-quarters of one-quarter gasoline engine oil.Since then, anarchists and rebels of all stripes are loyal fans of this incendiary "drink."
Today technology of preparation "cocktail" has not changed - they are made from gasoline, kerosene, turpentine or acetone with the addition of various thickeners.Modern tanks "cocktail" not set fire, but it will disable its external devices - such as optical or antenna.In street clashes "cocktails" usually throw in the car glass, air vents, under the bottom or in the bus wheels.